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1.Description of battery and its composition

A battery is a chemical power supply, which is a device that converts chemical energy directly into low-voltage direct current energy through chemical reaction. To achieve the energy conversion, the battery must have two conditions: the oxidation and reduction reaction must be separated in two areas; The electrons have to go through an external circuit. Therefore, the battery should include the following basic components:

Positive electrode - provides capacity, mainly consisting of active material and conductive skeleton.

Negative pole -- ibid.

Electrolyte - ion transport.

Diaphragm - prevents the formation of electronic conduction pathways between positive and negative poles.

Enclosure -- protection.

2.Basic operation principle

Conditions that constitute an applicable secondary battery:

    A electrode reaction must be reversible; B can only use one electrolyte solution; When c battery discharges, the product is insoluble in solution.

   Take lithium-ion batteries

电池的组成和基本原理      A li-ion battery is actually a li-ion concentration difference battery, and the positive and negative electrodes are made up of two different li-ion imbedded compounds. During charging, Li+ is detached from the positive pole and passes through the electrolyte to embed the negative pole. The negative pole is in the lithium rich state and the positive pole is in the lithium poor state. At the same time, the compensating charge of the electron is supplied from the external circuit to the carbon negative pole to guarantee the charge balance of the negative pole. When discharge is the opposite, Li+ is detached from the negative pole, inserted into the positive pole through the electrolyte, and the positive pole is in a lithium rich state. Under normal charge-discharge conditions, lithium ions embed and get out between layers of carbon materials with layered structure and oxides with layered structure, which generally only cause changes in layer spacing without damaging the crystal structure. In the charge-discharge process, the chemical structure of negative electrode materials is basically unchanged. Therefore, lithium ion battery reaction is an ideal reversible reaction from the reversibility of charge-discharge reaction.

 

电池的组成和基本原理

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